SIL-certified: Functional safety with mechanical switches

Mechanical pressure and temperature switches perform sensitive tasks in safety-relevant applications, e.g. monitoring limit values. Their functional safety must be guaranteed accordingly. This is always the case if the instruments fulfil certain requirements of the corresponding safety integrity level (SIL) in accordance with the IEC 61508 standard. WIKA switches have already been issued SIL approval because of their proven operational reliability.
Examples of WIKA switches whose functional safety is SIL-certified: a concise temperature switch with Ex d flameproof enclosure (model TCA; left), a Bourdon tube pressure switch (model BA/BAX; top right) and a miniature pressure switch (model PXS; bottom right).
Hazards to people, the environment and the plant that may emanate from critical processes must therefore be reduced to a satisfactory minimum. IEC 61508 supplies the necessary specifications for this. These are defined in different safety integrity levels, SIL 1 to 4.
The standard places equal responsibility on the responsible process developers and the manufacturers of the necessary components. For every instrument, it defines limit values for the probability of failure of a safety-relevant function. Simultaneously, it offers criteria for the possibility of controlling and avoiding systematic errors.
When the topic of ?functional safety? is discussed in expert groups in connection with SIL approval, it is mainly concerning electrical systems. However, numerous mechanical components may also be integrated within safety-relevant applications. These include measuring instruments that not want external power and for that reason work reliably, even yet in the event of a power failure. A SIL approval for these also means a clear statement on functional safety. In the case of mechanical parts, it really is primarily a question of the effects of aging and wear.
Individually installed: SIL 2, combined redundantly: SIL 3
The SIL certificate for WIKA?s pressure and temperature switches was issued in 2019 by exida, a globally recognised testing company. In accordance with its assessment, the instruments, when installed individually, meet up with the requirements of SIL 2, and in redundant combination, they even meet those of the level SIL 3.
Eager to assessment
In addition to the actual classification, the certificate for the WIKA switches also includes the addition ?route 2H?. In principle, there are two ways to arrive at a SIL assessment: ?Route 1H? states that the instruments or components involved have been developed and manufactured in accordance with the respective SIL specifications. ?Route 2H?, on the other hand, confirms that the assessment was additionally predicated on their operational reliability, as in the case of WIKA switches. The certified error rate is calculated from data collected during used in a credit card applicatoin in the field and transmitted to exida. The SIL assessment of functional safety is thus completed on an authentic basis: For each element of a device, at least 100 million operating hours will need to have been proven.
Empirical values in a database
The SIL assessment in accordance with route 2H refers to the empirical values from field use, which are stored in an exida database. There, specific operating conditions such as temperature, vibration etc. are taken into account.
Note
Detailed home elevators switches with SIL certificate ? pressure switches of the M, B, A, D, PC and PX series and temperature switches of the T series ? are available on the WIKA website. The approval certificate can be available as a PDF file there. Assuming you have any more questions, your contact will gladly assist you to.
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